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Em1, I agree with everything but the part on fruit. The german school system is federal, so it isn't the same between the Bundesländer.
This is even true for the last years of Gymnasium, which somehow match Highschool. Active Oldest Votes. Oh boy.
If you are hoping for a one-word answer, you are out of luck. So let me elaborate a bit: The German educational system English version here has three levels: Primary school Four years, for all children from ca.
Children attend one of these, depending on the desired level of education and personal abilities. Examples: If you want to talk primarily about attending a school, use the name of the type of school e.
If you are focused on children within a certain age bracket, dump the school reference and go with "Teenager" or "Jugendliche".
This can be combined with a general "Schule" or "Schüler" and often gets the idea across quite accurately. If you are actually talking about an American or international high school, just stick with "high school", because due to the fundamental differences in the educational systems, a translation might be misleading.
Stephie Stephie At least in Berlin most of the primary schools are from 1st to 6th grade. And in Hassia, there is an "Orientierungsstufe" th grade inserted in between Grundschule 1st-4th and the various Weiterführende Schulen.
Or at least that was the case when I went there. That's actually why I wrote "simplified" in my answer Stephie: How about actually reading the question?
It appears that the OP, who most likely is just trying to translate an American CV, was merely confused because they used dictionaries that don't list "Highschool".
To refer to the grades 10 - 13 or 12, depending on the state of an German Gymnasium you could use the term: Gymnasiale Oberstufe Wikipedia.
Enzo Enzo 41 3 3 bronze badges. Welcom to German Language SE. Can you say something on possible drawbacks of your translation?
Gymnasiale Oberstufe is maybe not that common in everyday language and it is no direct translation of high school, nevertheless you can use it to refer to the grades 10 - Another good way to refer to these grades would be Sekundarstufe II as Stephie suggested.
The Gymnasium is from grade 5 - 13 or 12 and is the highest school. The Realschule is from 5 - 10 and is the second highest school.
Depending on what educational level you want to refer to one of these would be fitting. Benjoyo Benjoyo 6 6 silver badges 7 7 bronze badges.
The educational level isn't specified--after all, in the U. I would say that such a word is nonexistent since all secondary schools in germany start after the Grundschule, which is after the 4th grade.
But keep in mind that you are only talking about students on a Gymnasium or equivalent , as the others would have finished school by then and hopefully started vocational training which has a "school" part, too, see here: german.
Therefore "Gymnasiale Oberstufe" is correct, too. With the extra hours there is a hot lunch and this has necessitated adding a cafeteria in these schools.
There can be a lot of homework and heavy emphasis on the "three Rs" - reading, writing and aRithmatic.
The curriculum expands as students move up from Grundschule and depends on which of the three secondary schools they attend.
The school year consists of two semesters and normally starts around the middle to end of August. There are longer breaks at Christmas and in the summer.
Shorter breaks are around Easter and in autumn. There is no school on public holidays. The Christmas break is usually 2 weeks and the summer break is about 6 weeks.
The exact dates of the various vacations and breaks are set by the individual Länder. There are different schools for students with special needs called Sonderschule or Förderschule.
Depending on the individual's needs and a school's availability, a student can attend one of the special schools. These schools are staffed with specially trained teachers and generally have a smaller student to teacher ratio than the regular schools.
Some special needs students don't attend these schools and are integrated into a Hauptschule or Gesamtschule. There are a number of different types of private schools in Germany.
These schools usually charge tuition and may offer varied courses leading to the German Abitur as well as other diplomas and certificates at the conclusion of studies.
The Internat are German boarding schools. There are several hundred of them in Germany offering a variety of study programs.
Most offer the Abitur and may offer additional specialized courses in different subjects or pursuits. There are sports Internat , music Internat as well as Internat that specialize in other areas.
There are also some separate boarding schools for boys and girls. The several dozen International Schools in Germany normally offer courses in English leading to an IBO or other diploma or certificate that allows the students to continue on to college or university.
There are many Protestant and Catholic private schools that offer the standard German Abitur. Home schooling is illegal in Germany.
The law requiring students to attend public schools or approved private schools has been upheld despite challenges to it. There are several varieties of university-level schools.
The classical universities, in the tradition of Alexander von Humboldt, provide a broad general education and students usually attend them for up to six years.
However, in recent years there have been changes to the curriculum allowing a university student in a normal or technical university to normally acquire a Bachelor Degree in either 6 or 7 semesters.
A Masters Degree will normally require an additional 3 or 4 semesters. The amount of time to acquire a degree depends on the university and not the state.
Curricula may vary slightly from school to school. The Technical Universities Technische Hochschulen are more aimed at training students for specific careers.
There are also Hochschulen for art and music. The final examination, Abitur , was introduced in , implemented in all Prussian secondary schools by and extended to all of Germany in The state also established teacher training colleges for prospective teachers in the common or elementary grades.
When the German Empire was formed in , the school system became more centralized. In , Prussia recognized the first separate secondary schools for females.
As learned professions demanded well-educated young people, more secondary schools were established, and the state claimed the sole right to set standards and to supervise the newly established schools.
By the turn of the 20th century, the four types of schools had achieved equal rank and privilege, although they did not have equal prestige.
Most pupils continued at these schools for another four-year course. Those who were able to pay a small fee went on to a Mittelschule that provided a more challenging curriculum for an additional one or two years.
Upon passing a rigorous entrance exam after year four, pupils could also enter one of the four types of secondary school.
During the Nazi era — , the basic education system remained unchanged. The German Democratic Republic East Germany started its own standardized education system in the s.
The East German equivalent of both primary and secondary schools was the Polytechnic Secondary School Polytechnische Oberschule , which all students attended for 10 years, from the ages of 6 to At the end of the 10th year, an exit examination was set.
Depending upon the results, a pupil could choose to come out of education or undertake an apprenticeship for an additional two years, followed by an Abitur.
Those who performed very well and displayed loyalty to the ruling party could change to the Erweiterte Oberschule extended high school , where they could take their Abitur examinations after 12 school years.
Although this system was abolished in the early s after reunification, it continues to influence school life in the eastern German states.
They installed educational systems in their respective occupation zones that reflected their own ideas. When West Germany gained partial independence in , its new constitution Grundgesetz granted educational autonomy to the state Länder governments.
This led to widely varying school systems, often making it difficult for children to continue schooling whilst moving between states.
Multi-state agreements ensure that basic requirements are universally met by all state school systems. Thus, all children are required to attend one type of school five or six days a week from the age of 6 to the age of A pupil may change schools in the case of exceptionally good or exceptionally poor ability.
Graduation certificates from one state are recognized by all the other states. Qualified teachers are able to apply for posts in any of the states.
In after much public debate about Germany's perceived low international ranking in Programme for International Student Assessment PISA , there has been a trend towards a less ideological discussion on how to develop schools.
These are some of the new trends:. In Germany, education is the responsibility of the states Länder and part of their constitutional sovereignty Kulturhoheit der Länder.
Teachers are employed by the Ministry of Education for the state and usually have a job for life after a certain period verbeamtet which, however, is not comparable in timeframe nor competitiveness to the typical tenure track, e.
This practice depends on the state and is currently changing. A parents' council is elected to voice the parents' views to the school's administration.
Each class elects one or two "Klassensprecher" class presidents; if two are elected usually one is male and the other female , who meet several times a year as the "Schülerrat" students' council.
A team of school presidents is also elected by the pupils each year, whose main purpose is organizing school parties, sports tournaments and the like for their fellow students.
The local town is responsible for the school building and employs the janitorial and secretarial staff. For an average school of — students, there may be two janitors and one secretary.
School administration is the responsibility of the teachers, who receive a reduction in their teaching hours if they participate.
Church and state are separated in Germany. Compulsory school prayers and compulsory attendance at religious services at state schools are against the constitution.
It is expected, though, to stand politely for the school prayer even if one does not pray along. In , it was ruled that the Christian cross was not allowed in classrooms, as it violates the religious freedom of non-Christian students.
The cross is allowed if none of the pupils object, but must be removed in the event of an objection. The German preschool is known as a Kindergarten plural Kindergärten or Kita , short for Ki nder ta gesstätte meaning "children's daycare center".
Children between the ages of 2 and 6 attend Kindergärten , which are not part of the school system. They are often run by city or town administrations, churches, or registered societies, many of which follow a certain educational approach as represented, e.
Forest kindergartens are well established. Attending a Kindergarten is neither mandatory nor free of charge, but can be partly or wholly funded, depending on the local authority and the income of the parents.
All caretakers in Kita or Kindergarten must have a three-year qualified education, or be under special supervision during training.
Kindergärten can be open from 7 a. Alongside nurseries, there are day-care nurses called Tagesmutter , plural Tagesmütter — the formal, gender-neutral form is Tagespflegeperson en working independently from any pre-school institution in individual homes and looking after only three to five children typically up to three years of age.
These nurses are supported and supervised by local authorities. The term Vorschule , meaning 'pre-school', is used both for educational efforts in Kindergärten and for a mandatory class that is usually connected to a primary school.
Both systems are handled differently in each German state. The Schulkindergarten is a type of Vorschule. During the German Empire, children were able to pass directly into secondary education after attending a privately run, charged "Vorschule" which then was another sort of primary school.
The Weimar Constitution banned these, feeling them to be an unjustified privilege, and the Basic Law still contains the constitutional rule Art.
VI that: Pre-schools shall remain abolished. Homeschooling is — between Schulpflicht beginning with elementary school to 18 years — illegal in Germany.
The illegality has to do with the prioritization of children's rights over the rights of parents: children have the right to the company of other children and adults who are not their parents, also parents cannot opt their kids out of sexual education classes because the state considers a child's right to information to be more important than a parent's desire to withhold it.
The entry year can vary between 5 and 7, while stepping back or skipping a grade is also possible. After children complete their primary education at 10 years of age, 12 in Berlin and Brandenburg , there are five options for secondary schooling:.
After passing through any of the above schools, pupils can start a career with an apprenticeship in the Berufsschule vocational school.
The Berufsschule is normally attended twice a week during a two, three, or three-and-a-half-year apprenticeship ; the other days are spent working at a company.
This is intended to provide a knowledge of theory and practice. The company is obliged to accept the apprentice on its apprenticeship scheme.
After this, the apprentice is registered on a list at the Industrie- und Handelskammer IHK chamber of industry and commerce.
During the apprenticeship, the apprentice is a part-time salaried employee of the company. After passing the Berufsschule and the exit exams of the IHK, a certificate is awarded and the young person is ready for a career up to a low management level.
In some areas, the schemes teach certain skills that are a legal requirement special positions in a bank, legal assistants. Some special areas provide different paths.
After attending any of the above schools and gaining a leaving certificate like Hauptschulabschluss, Mittlere Reife or Realschulabschuss, from a Realschule or Abitur from a Gymnasium or a Gesamtschule , school leavers can start a career with an apprenticeship at a Berufsschule vocational school.
Here the student is registered with certain bodies, e. During the apprenticeship, the young person is a part-time salaried employee of the institution, bank, physician or attorney's office.
After leaving the Berufsfachschule and passing the exit examinations set by the German Bar Association or other relevant associations, the apprentice receives a certificate and is ready for a career at all levels except in positions which require a specific higher degree, such as a doctorate.
In some areas, the apprenticeship scheme teaches skills that are required by law, including certain positions in a bank or those as legal assistants.
The 16 states have exclusive responsibility in the field of education and professional education. The federal parliament and the federal government can influence the educational system only by financial aid to the states.
There are many different school systems, but in each state the starting point is always the Grundschule elementary school for a period of four years; or six years in the case of Berlin and Brandenburg.
Grades 5 and 6 form an orientation or testing phase Orientierungs- or Erprobungsstufe during which students, their parents and teachers decide which of the above-mentioned paths the students should follow.
In all states except Berlin and Brandenburg , this orientation phase is embedded into the program of the secondary schools. The decision for a secondary school influences the student's future, but during this phase changes can be made more easily.
In practice this rarely comes to bear because teachers are afraid of sending pupils to more academic schools whereas parents are afraid of sending their children to less academic schools.
In Berlin and Brandenburg, the orientation is embedded into that of the elementary schools. Teachers give a so-called educational path recommendation Bildungs gang empfehlung based on scholastic achievements in the main subjects mathematics, German, natural sciences, foreign language and classroom behavior with details and legal implications differing from state to state: in some German states, those wishing to apply for a Gymnasium or Realschule require such a recommendation stating that the student is likely to make a successful transition to that type of school; in other cases anybody may apply.
A student's performance at primary school is immaterial. All German states have Gymnasium as one possibility for the more able children, and all states — except Saxony — have some Gesamtschulen , but in different forms.
The states of Berlin and Hamburg have only two types of schools: comprehensive schools and Gymnasium.
Learning a foreign language is compulsory throughout Germany in secondary schools and English is one of the more popular choices.
Students at certain Gymnasium are required to learn Latin as their first foreign language and choose a second foreign language.
The list of available foreign languages as well as the hours of compulsory foreign language lessons differ from state to state, but the more common choices, besides Latin, are English, French, Spanish, ancient Greek.
Many schools also offer voluntary study groups for the purpose of learning other languages. At which stage students begin learning a foreign language differs from state to state and is tailored according to the cultural and socio-economical dynamics of each state.
In some states, foreign language education starts in the Grundschule primary school. Baden-Württemberg starts with English or French in the first year.
The Saarland , which borders France , begins with French in the third year of primary school and French is taught in high school as the main foreign language.
It may cause problems in terms of education for families that plan to move from one German state to another as there are partially completely different curricula for nearly every subject.
Pupils of the Realschule gaining the chance to make Abitur on a Gymnasium with a good degree in the Realschulabschluss.
Stepping up is always provided by the school system. Adults who did not achieve a Realschulabschluss or Abitur , or reached its equivalent, have the option of attending evening classes at an Abendgymnasium or Abendrealschule.
A few organizational central points are listed below. It should however be noted that due to the decentralized nature of the education system there are many more additional differences across the 16 states of Germany.
There are typically 12 weeks of holidays in addition to public holidays. Exact dates differ between states, but there are generally six weeks of summer and two weeks of Christmas holiday.
The other holiday periods occur in spring during the period around Easter Sunday and autumn during the former harvest, where farmers used to need their children for field work.
Schools can also schedule two or three special days off per term. Students have about 30—40 periods of 45 minutes each per week depending on year and state , but especially secondary schools today switch to 90 minutes lessons Block which count as two 'traditional' lessons.
To manage classes that are taught three or five lessons per week there are two common ways. At some schools teaching 90 minutes periods there is still one minute lesson each day, mostly between the first two blocks; at other schools those subjects are taught in weekly or termly rotations.
The range of offered afternoon activities is different from school to school however, most German schools offer choirs or orchestras, sometimes sports, theater or languages.
Many of these are offered as semi-scholastic AG's Arbeitsgemeinschaften — literally "working groups" , which are mentioned, but not officially graded in students' reports.
Other common extracurricular activities are organized as private clubs, which are very popular in Germany. There are three blocks of lessons where each lesson takes 45 minutes.
After each block, there is a break of 15—20 minutes, also after the 6th lesson the number of lessons changes from year to year, so it's possible that one would be in school until 4 o'clock.
In grades 11—13, 11—12, or 12—13 depending on the school system , each student majors in two or three subjects "Leistungskurse".
These are usually taught five lessons per week. The other subjects "Grundkurse" are usually taught three periods per week.
The class is supposed to train the students' scientific research skills that will be necessary in their later university life.
There are huge differences between the 16 states of Germany having alternatives to this basic pattern such as Waldorfschulen or other private schools.
Adults can also go back to evening school and take the Abitur exam. In , six percent of German children attended private schools.
In Germany , Article 7, Paragraph 4 of the Grundgesetz , the constitution of Germany, guarantees the right to establish private schools.
This article belongs to the first part of the German basic law , which defines civil and human rights.
A right which is guaranteed in this part of the Grundgesetz can only be suspended in a state of emergency , if the respective article specifically states this possibility.
That is not the case with this article. It is also not possible to abolish these rights. This unusual protection of private schools was implemented to protect them from a second Gleichschaltung or similar event in the future.
Ersatzschulen are ordinary primary or secondary schools which are run by private individuals, private organizations or religious groups.
These schools offer the same types of diplomas as in public schools. However, Ersatzschulen, like their state-run counterparts, are subjected to basic government standards, such as the minimum required qualifications of teachers and pay grades.
An Ersatzschule must have at least the same academic standards as those of a state school and Article 7, Paragraph 4 of the Grundgesetz, allows to forbid the segregation of pupils according to socioeconomic status the so-called Sonderungsverbot.
Therefore, most Ersatzschulen have very low tuition fees compared to those in most other Western European countries; scholarships are also often available.
However, it is not possible to finance these schools with such low tuition fees: accordingly all German Ersatzschulen are subsidised with public funds.
Some students attend private schools through welfare subsidies. This is often the case if a student is considered to be a child at risk: students who have learning disabilities, special needs or come from dysfunctional home environments.
After allowing for the socio-economic status of the parents, children attending private schools are not as able as those at state schools.
At the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA for example, after considering socioeconomic class, students at private schools underperformed those at state schools.
Some private Realschulen and Gymnasien have lower entry requirements than public Realschulen and Gymnasien.
Most German children with special needs attend a school called Förderschule or Sonderschule special school that serves only such children.
There are several types of special schools in Germany such as:. Only one in 21 German children attends such a special school. Teachers at those schools are qualified professionals who have specialized in special-needs education while at university.
Special schools often have a very favourable student-teacher ratio and facilities compared with other schools. Special schools have been criticized.
It is argued that special education separates and discriminates against those who are disabled or different.
There are very few specialist schools for gifted children. As German schools do not IQ-test children, most intellectually gifted children remain unaware that they fall into this category.
The German psychologist, Detlef H. Rost, carried out a pioneer long-term study on gifted children called the Marburger Hochbegabtenprojekt.
Those who scored at least two standard deviations above the mean were categorised as gifted. A total of gifted subjects participated in the study alongside controls.
All participants in the study were tested blind with the result that they did not discover whether they were gifted or not.
The study revealed that the gifted children did very well in school. The vast majority later attended a Gymnasium and achieved good grades.
However, 15 percent, were classified as underachievers because they attended a Realschule two cases or a Hauptschule one case , had repeated a grade four cases or had grades that put them in the lower half of their class the rest of cases.
The report also concluded that most gifted persons had high self-esteem and good psychological health. Gifted children seemed to be served well by Germany's existing school system.
The assessment in the year demonstrated serious weaknesses in German pupils' performance. In the test of 41 countries, Germany ranked 21st in reading and 20th in both mathematics and the natural sciences , prompting calls for reform.
In response, Germany's states formulated a number of specific initiatives addressing the perceived problems behind Germany's poor performance.
By , German schoolchildren had improved their position compared to previous years, being ranked statistically significantly above average rank 13 in science skills and statistically not significantly above or below average in mathematical skills rank 20 and reading skills rank The PISA Examination also found big differences in achievement between students attending different types of German schools.
Germany has high standards in the education of craftspeople. Historically very few people attended college.
In the s for example, 80 percent had only Volksschule "primary school" -Education of 6 or 7 years. Only 5 percent of youths entered college at this time and still fewer graduated.
In the s, 6 percent of youths entered college. In there were still 8, cities in which no children received secondary education.
In fact, many of those who did not receive secondary education were highly skilled craftspeople and members of the upper middle class.
Even though more people attend college today, a craftsperson is still highly valued in German society. Historically prior to the 20th century the relationship between a master craftsman and his apprentice was paternalistic.
Apprentices were often very young when entrusted to a master craftsman by their parents. It was seen as the master's responsibility not only to teach the craft, but also to instill the virtues of a good craftsman.
He was supposed to teach honour, loyalty, fair-mindedness, courtesy and compassion for the poor.
He was also supposed to offer spiritual guidance, to ensure his apprentices fulfilled their religious duties and to teach them to "honour the Lord" Jesus Christ with their lives.
The master craftsman who failed to do this would lose his reputation and would accordingly be dishonoured — a very bad fate in those days.
The apprenticeship ended with the so-called Freisprechung exculpation. The master announced in front of the trade heading that the apprentice had been virtuous and God-loving.
He had two options: either to work for a master or to become a master himself. Working for another master had several disadvantages.
One was that, in many cases, the journeyman who was not a master was not allowed to marry and found a family.